In the earlier article in postural correction II, we saw the postural correction relating to work or daily routine. But every time the distress is not due to daily routine or actions, but it can genetic, imitation or inherent from birth as described in the article. If we consider walking, sitting, running as natural movement as we grow, it can be inherited incorrectly. These actions are learned by us at earlier growing age immediately after 6 months after our birth. If inherited incorrectly, it will not be determined at younger age, or growing age. Degenerative process can start even at early age of 20. Sooner one determines the postural incorrectness, he will not have to suffer from any degenerative process later in his life. We take our body for granted and abuse it till we don’t face any discomfort. The body will take it for longer time as much as possible, varies from person to person. But it is duty of every individual to determine one’s structure and bring about correction in himself.
We always concentrating on building our body and bringing zero figure. Every individual is different and their shape, their metabolism is different. Most of the times, the shape of our body is determined genetically. We even must consider the shape, size and weight of our bone structure too to determine one’s shape. But what is most important is toning of the body. Basically, what we want is good toning, good shape then thin, skinny, anorexic or malnourish face. We don’t need muscular body like wrestlers, and yes if we get muscular body, then the maintenance of that body is also crucial, and it has its pros and cons, but we are in an urge of toned body. This toning can also be achieved through postural correction and understanding of flow of movement. We will see that later after complete understanding of joints and its shapes and movement.
Every joint has its specialty according to the requirement of the movement at that part of the body. Structure of the joint determined the different movement that takes place at that articulation of two bones that is flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation (medial and lateral), protraction, retraction, inversion, eversion, dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. We will see all major joints and its movements and its use in our daily actions from foot to head. When we say one bone articulates we another bone, we mean that the bones form a joint.
Human being is an evolved animal. It has stood erect on two legs and spine works as a back bone or support for the whole structure. Foot of human being has gone through highest evolutionary process.
- Ankle joint and foot - The group of small bones of the foot has to bare entire weight of the body. If we compare human foot with quadruped animal. The main aim of the human foot is to bare weight of the body and propel the weight of the body during walking and also help to maintain balance during changes in body positions.The main action of this joint is dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion and eversion. Any changes in placing of the foot then straight or overdo these above actions in one direction can affect arch of the foot thus weight baring capacity of the foot.
- Knee Joint- the knee joint is the largest and most complex joint of the body, actually consisting of three joints within a single synovial cavity. The knee joint allows flexion, extension, slight medial rotation and lateral rotation of leg in the flexed position which is also called locking and unlocking movement. Ligaments are also crucial at this joint which hole the knee while climbing up and down. The knee joint is the most vulnerable to damage because its is a mobile, weight bearing joint and its stability depends almost entirely on its associated ligaments and muscles and thus associated joints.
- Hip joint- The hip joint is a ball and socket joint formed by the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the hip bone. The hip joint allows flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, medial rotation and lateral rotation of thigh. This is the connection between pelvic girdle and upper torso and the lower appendages. while walking ankle is fulcrum and hip
is a pivot around which the leg moves.
- Pelvic Girdle – The pelvic girdle consists of the two hip bones, pubic symphysis and scrum forms a deep, basin like structure called the bony pelvis. Functionally, the bony pelvis provides a strong and stable support for the vertebral column and pelvic organs. The pelvic girdle of the bony pelvis also connects the bones of the lower limbs to axial skeleton. The movement of the
pelvic girdle is upward and downward movement of the girdle. This movements is very important in the flow of the movement for the postural correction which we will discuss later.
- Vertebral Column- The vertebral column, also called the spine or backbone, makes up about two fifth of your total height and is composed of series of bones called vertebrae. The vertebral column, the sternum, and the ribs form the skeleton of the trunk of the body. The vertebral column consists of bone and connective tissue; the spinal cord that it surrounds and protects consists of nervous and connective tissues. In addition to enclosing and protecting the spinal cord, it supports the head, and serves as a point of attachment for the ribs, pelvic girdle, and muscles of the back. The total number of vertebrae during early development is 33. The spine is in not straight but has curvature at cervical and lumbar position. The cervical and lumbar curves convex and thoracic and sacral curves are concave. The curves of the vertebral column increase its strength, help maintain balance in the upright position, absorbs shocks during walking and help protect the vertebrae from fracture.
- Thorax – the term thorax refers to the entire chest. The skeletal part of the thorax, the thoracic cage, is a bony enclosed formed by the sternum, costal cartilages, ribs and the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae. It encloses and protects the organs in the thoracic and superior abdominal cavities and provides support for the bones of the shoulder girdle and upper limbs. The main action is the protection of internal organs.
- Shoulder (Pectoral) Girdle – The human body has two pectoral or shoulder girdles that attach the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton. Each of the two pectoral girdles consists of a clavicle and a scapula. The function of appendicular skeleton is movement. The appendicular skeleton includes the bones that make up the upper and lower limbs as well as the bones of the
two girdles that attach the limbs to axial skeleton. The bones of the appendicular skeleton relate to one another and with skeletal muscles, permitting us to walk, use computer, dance, swim and play a musical instrument. Abusing the above activities, adapting to new and upcoming technologies and increasing workload leads to postural defect thus leading to deformity, we will learn that next.
- Skull – Head is the top most organ of the body. Our main part of the body and controlling organ brain is protected by the skull. Head is the heaviest part of our body. If we keep head upright, it will reduce pressure on our neck. The brain and spinal cord which are part of central nervous system control the metabolism and activity of vital organ and appendages of the body with help of peripheral nervous system. Nervous system regulates body activities by responding rapidly using nerve impulses. Besides helping maintain homeostasis, the nervous system is responsible for our perception, behavior and memories. Therefore, this part of the body is important to memories and save the postural corrections we will bringing in our body permanently at the cellular level.
Postural correction starts from foot to head. The observation should be based from actions from ankle to head. Let’s see the flow chart.
Ankle position (position of the foot)
Position of knee (medial and lateral condyle)
Position of hip joint (lateral and medial rotation)
Pelvic Girdle (rotational movement)
Pressure on Lower back
Position of shoulder Girdle (rotational movement of the girdle)
Pelvic Girdle (rotational movement)
Pressures on knee joint
Pressure on Ankle
Pressure on Arch (weight bearing)
The position of the foot is very important, if we are stepping our foot outwards laterally or inward medially create pressure on ankle joint, thus give pressure on lateral and medial condyles of the knee, thus reducing space in the joint and increase friction between knee joint thus giving pain in knee joint. To reduce knee pain, we adjust positioning of hip joint that is there is lateral rotation of hip joint. This increases pressure on pelvic girdle and hip muscles and six deep rotator muscles and ultimately pinches the sciatic nerve which passes through these six deep rotator muscles. This gives pain to whole leg. This brings pressure on lower back. To avoid the lower back pain, one starts dropping shoulder, this brings pressure on chest muscles and stomach and there is downward rotation of the pelvic girdle. This again brings pressure on knee joint and ankle joint.
This flow also starts from shoulder girdle. Because of the growing new technologies, mobile phone, laptops replacing computers or desktops, the head is tilted download, bringing pressure on neck and upper back at posterior part of the body, shoulders on anterior side of the body, thus giving pressure on chest – stomach- knee- ankle- knee- hip-thus on lower back.
These pressures are not only on bony structure but also on associated muscles, tendons, ligaments and nerves. This increases the friction, wear and tear of the muscles, tendons, ligaments and bony structure. Thus, we feel more pain and hinders our daily activities. These are mechanical changes which should be corrected mechanical only and not by replacing it with any foreign body to avoid the feeling of pain. Operation will reduce pain in one part but this mechanical change is seen or is happened because of all other associated joints and muscles too.
Correction starts from ankle to shoulder or shoulder to ankle. There are three main correction which will ultimately bring correction to all the associated joints.
- Placement of the foot. It should be straight, or slightly inward and the arch of the foot should be maintained. Slight inward movement of the foot also reduces pressure on knee, and it helps to avoid overextension of the knee.
- Upward rotation of Pelvic Girdle- slight inward movement of foot and medial rotation of hip joint helps upward movement of the pelvic Girdle. This reduces pressure on lower back.
- Downward rotation of scapula and upward rotation of clavicle – this will reduce pressure on neck. Head will be aligned. Reduce pressure on chest and stomach, stomach will be lifted, and we will not see stomach paunch.
This correction will bring toning of the body and exercising in this corrected posture will bring strength, toning, burning unnecessary fats and equal distribution of necessary fats throughout the body. Since there is equal pressure on all the joints, there won’t be excessive deposition of fats at any one part of the body, thus loosing the tone of the body. This also helps maintain omeostasis of the body of all other fluids.